Research Focus

End-of-life issues, ethics, pediatrics.

Recent Grants

  • A Precursor for Analysis of Continuity of Care and Ethical Conflict at the End-of-Life, Principal Investigator (2008-2009)

Teaching Focus

Ethics, pharmacology.


Advance Online Publications

Miller, P.H., Epstein, E.G., Smith, T.B., Welch, T.D., Smith, M., Bail, J.R. (2023). Moral distress among nurse leaders: A qualitative systematic review. Nursing Ethics. Advance online publication.

Amos, V., Sullivan, K., Phal, N., Wocial, L., & Epstein, E.G. (2023). A novel web-based and mobile application to measure real-time moral distress: An initial pilot and feasibility study. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety. Advance online publication.

Journal Articles

Beltrao, J.R., Beltrao, M.R., Bernardelli, R.S., Franco, R.S., Epstein, E.G., Corradi-Perini, C. (2023). Adaptation and validation of the Brazilian version of the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals. BMC Palliative Care, 22(154), 0.

Epstein, E.G., Marshall, M.F. O’Connor, C., & Ortiz, M.M. (2023). Moral community and teamwork in the ICU. Critical Connections, Spring 2023, 32-33.

Silverman, A., Batten, J., Berkman, E., Fitzgerald, H., Epstein, E., Shearer, E., Diekema, D., & Burgart, A. (2023). Resuscitate but not intubate? Partial codes in pediatrics. Pediatrics, 152(2), 57-60.

McBride, S., Alexander, G., Baernholdt, M., Vugrin, M., & Epstein, E. (2023). Scoping review: Positive and negative impact of technology on clinicians. Nursing Outlook, 71(2), 101918.

Prompahakul, C., Keim-Malpass, J., LeBaron, V., & Epstein, E. (2023). Thai translation and psychometric testing of the measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals. Journal of Health Science and Medical Research, 41(6), 1-10.

Epstein, E. G., Hurst, A. R., Bourne, D. & Marshall, M. F. (2023). Measure for measure: Condemning the actor and not the fault. The American Journal of Bioethics, 23(4), 66-68.

Bourne, D.W., Epstein, E. (2023). The experience of moral distress in an academic family medicine clinic. HEC Forum, 35(1), 37-54.

Wilson, M. A., Simmons, A., Harris, J. I., Thomas, S., Shay, A., Usset, T. J., Cook, W., Bevington, D., Hurley, A. C., & Epstein, E. (2022). Adaptation and testing of a military version of the measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals. American Journal of Critical Care, 31(5), .

Amos, V. K. and Epstein, E. G. (2022). Moral distress interventions: An integrative literature review. Nursing Ethics, 29(3), 582-607.

Epstein, E., Shah, R., & Marshall, M. F. (2021). Effect of a moral distress consultation service on moral distress, empowerment, and a healthy work environment. Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum, 4(3), 1-15.

Prompahakul, C., Malpass, J., LeBaron, V., Yan, G., & Epstein, B. (2021). Moral distress among nurses: A mixed methods study. Nursing Ethics, 28(8), 1165-1182.

Whitehead, P. B., Carter, K., Garber, J., & Epstein, E. G. (2021). The nurse manager's experience of moral distress. Journal of Nursing Administration, 51(6), 334-339.

Epstein, E. G. (2021). A closer look at feticide and moral distress. [Invited commentary]. Journal of Clinical Ethics, 32(2), 124-126.

Prompahakul, C., & Epstein, E.G. (2020). Moral distress experienced by non-Western nurses: An integrative review. Nursing Ethics, 27(3), 778-795.

Epstein, E. G., Haizlip, J., Liaschenko, J., Zhao, D., Bennett, R., & Marshall, M. F. (2020). Moral distress, mattering, and secondary traumatic stress in provider burnout: A call for moral community. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 31(2), 146-157.

Berger, J., Hamric, A. B., & Epstein, E. G. (2019). Self-inflicted moral distress: Opportunity for a fuller exercise of professionalism. Journal of Clinical Ethics, 30(4), 315-318.

Epstein, E. G., Prompahakul, C., Thacker, L., Whitehead, P. B., & Hamric, A. B. (2019). Enhancing understanding of moral distress: The measure of moral distress for healthcare professionals. AJOB Empirical Bioethics, 10(2), 113-124.

Wolf, A., White, K. R., Epstein, E., & Enfield, K. (2019). Palliative care and moral distress: An institutional survey of critical care nurses. Critical Care Nurse, 39(5), 38-49.

Chen, D., Epstein, E., Almarode, S., Winter, J., & Marshall, M. F. (2018). What the “F”? American Journal of Bioethics, 18(1), 16-19.

Caspari, L., Blackman A., Epstein, E.G., & Kaufman D. (2017). Human factors related to time dependent infection control measures: “Scrub the hub” for venous catheters and feeding tubes. American Journal of Infection Control, 45, 641-651.

Epstein, E., Arechiga, J., Dancy, M., Simon, J., Wilson, D. & Alhusen, J. (2017). Integrative review of technology to support communication with parents of infants in the NICU. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 46(3), 357-366.

Epstein, E., & Hurst, A. (2017). Looking at the positive side of moral distress: Why it's a problem. The Journal of Clinical Ethics, 28(1), 37-41.

Epstein, E. G., Hurst, A. R., Mahanes, D., Marshall, M. F., & Hamric, A. B. (2016). Is broader better? American Journal of Bioethics, 16(12), 15-17.

Alhusen, J., Bower, K., Epstein, E., & Sharps, P. (2016). Racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes: An integrative review. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 61(6), 707-720.

Epstein, E.G. & Wolfe, K. (2016). A preliminary evaluation of trust and shared decision making among intensive care unit patients’ family members. Applied Nursing Research, 32, 286-288.

Marshall, M.F. & Epstein, E.G. (2016). Moral hazard and moral distress: A marriage made in purgatory. [Open peer commentary]. American Journal of Bioethics, 16(7), 46-48.

Roczen, M.L., White, K.R., & Epstein, E.G. (2016). Palliative care and intensive care units: A systematic review. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 18(3), 201-211.

Whitehead, P., Herbertson, R.K., Hamric, A.B., Epstein, E.G., & Fisher, J.M. (2015). Moral distress among healthcare professionals: Report of an institution-wide survey. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(2), 117-125.

Epstein, E.G. & Turner, M. (2015). The nursing code of ethics: Its value, its history. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(2), 4.

Trautmann, J., Epstein, E., Rovnyak, V., Snyder, A. (2015). Relationships among moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave of nurse practitioners in emergency departments: results from a national survey. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 37(2), 134-45.

Epstein, E. G., Sherman, J., Blackman, A., & Sinkin, R. A. (2015). Testing the feasibility of Skype and FaceTime updates with parents in the NICU. American Journal of Critical Care, 24(4), 290-296.

Epstein, E.G., Rovnyak, V., Miles, A. & Baernholdt, M. (2013). Parents' perceptions of continuity of care in the NICU: Preliminary testing of an instrument and implications for the nurse-parent relationship. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 27(2), 168-175.

Hamric, A.B., Borchers, C.T., & Epstein, E.G. (2012). Development and testing of an instrument to measure moral distress in healthcare professionals. AJOB Primary Research, (2), 1-9.

Hamric, A.B., Borchers, C.T., & Epstein, E.G. (2012). Development and testing of an instrument to measure moral distress. AJOB Primary Research, 3(2), 1-9.

Epstein, E.G. (2012). Preventive ethics in the ICU. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 23(2), 217-224.

Epstein, E.G. & Delgado, S.H. (2010). Understanding and addressing moral distress. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), .

Epstein,E. G. (2008). End-of-life experiences of nurses and physicians in the newborn intensive care unit.. Journal of Perinatology, 28(11), 771-778.

Book Sections

Epstein, E.G., Whitehead, P.B., Mahanes, D., Amos, V., Hurst, A. (2023). Preventing and addressing moral distress. In J. Davidson (Ed, ), Workplace wellness: A primer for leaders in healthcare (pp. 0-Springer Nature).

Epstein, E.G. & Ward, F. (2023). Ethical dimensions of nursing and healthcare. In E. Friberg & J. Creasia (Eds.), Conceptual foundations: The bridge to professional nursing practice (pp. 0-Elsevier, Inc).

Epstein, E. G., & Maynard, F. R. (2020). Ethical dimensions of nursing and health care. In E. E. Friberg (Ed.), Conceptual foundations: The bridge to professional nursing practice (7th ed., pp. 210-224). Elsevier, Inc.

Hamric, A. B., Epstein, E. G., & White, K. R. (2013). Moral distress and the healthcare organization. In G. Filerman, A. Mills, & P. Schyve (Eds.), Managerial ethics in healthcare: A new perspective (pp. 137-57). Health Administration Press.

Epstein, E. G. (2012). Ethical issues in neonatal nursing. In C. M. Ulrich (Ed.), Nursing ethics in everyday practice: A step by step guide (pp. ). Sigma Theta Tau International

Hamric, A.B., Epstein, E.G. & White, K. (2012). Moral distress and the hospital. In A. Mills, G. Filerman, & P. Werhane (Eds.), Healthcare Ethics for Healthcare Organizations: A Moral Imperative (pp. ). Health Administration Press.

Columns, Editorials and Op-Eds

Marshall, M.F., Epstein, E.G., Bourne, D., Mahanes, S.D. (2020, Summer). Ethics and moral distress consultation shape an institutional approach. SCCM Critical Connections. .

Phillips, E.K., & Epstein, E. G. (2015, January 29). Kavod v'Nichum: Nurses, the dying, and the newly dead. Jewish Journal: Expired and Inspired. Retrieved from

Archival Documents and Collections

Epstein, E.G., Valcin, K., Agarwal, A., de la Zerda, D.J., Mikkelsen, M., Roberts, K.J., Sikora, A., Smithburger, P., Stollings, J., & Vranas, K.C. (2022). Well-being Gap Analysis Toolkit for Critical Care Professionals. Centers for Disease Control/Society for Critical Care Medicine Task Force. Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM).